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Writing Workshop
* Read Aloud (5 minutes)- Writing is taught within the concept of genre studies. If students are expected to produce writing in these genres, then they need to be immersed with books based on thos genres. Students can hear how writers utilize different styles and literary elements. I may or may not read the entire book during this time.

* Mini Lessons (10-15 minutes)- The mini-lesson is where I make a suggestion to the whole class, which would help improve the students' writing. Choices of topic varies from year to year: it is mostly determined by my personal observations of the class. If I notice many students struggling with a certain skill, I will address it within a whole group mini-lesson. Strategies addressed during mini-lessons do not just apply to the writing piece on-hand, but they are ones that can be used again and again during the writing workshop and during children's lives as writers. This is the only portion of writing that involves direct instuction.

* Independent Writing (40 minutes)- After the mini-lesson, students work on their individual pieces. During this time, students may be involved in conferences with teacher/peer/parent volunteer. In the beginning of the year these sessions of independent writing are shorter, but as the students become more comfortable with the process the time is lengthened. Since students work at different speeds, each student may be at a different writing step: prewriting, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing.

* Conferring- While students are involved in independent writing, I use this time to meet with students individually. When conferring, I do not read all of what the child has written- it would take too long! Instead I focus on one or two main points. A conference only lasts a few minutes. I take notes during this time to document students' progress and to plan future mini-lessons. During conferring, I may: 1) listen to students read portions of their entries aloud s) help students decide what they want to say 3) provide feedback 4) re-teach skills taught during mini-lessons 5) teach necessary new skills 6) reinforce a writer's strengths 7) give writers new ways of thinking.

* Guided Writing Groups- As the students settle into independent writing, I may meet with a small group of students for a guided writing lesson. I try to meet with a new "guided writing" group each day. These are writers with similar needs and abilities.

* Sharing (5-10 minutes)- At the end of writing workshop, I may bring back students into a group for share and reflection. During a share, a student gets a turn to share a small part of an entry, especially if it addresses the skill brought up during the mini-lesson.


Unit 1: The Sentence
What is a complete sentence? Types of sentences. Subjects and Predicates. Avoiding run-ons. Combining sentences.

Unit 3: Nouns
Common vs Proper. Singular vs Plural. Possessive. Special Nouns.

Unit 5: Verbs
Locating. Action vs Non-action. Direct objects. Conjugating.

Unit 7: Adjectives
Comparative and Superlative. Articles and Demonstrative Adjectives.

Unit 9: Punctuation
Ending marks. Commas. Quotation Marks. Hyphens. Dashes. Colons and Semicolons. Apostrophes.

Unit 11: Pronouns
Subject, Object, Possessive. Contractions with pronouns.

Unit 13: Adverbs and Prepositions
Tells how, when, or where. Prepositions phrases.


Poetry Writing is a written form that helps the writer express an imaginative awareness and is arranged to create a specific emotional response sometimes employing the use or repetition, meter, and rhyme.

Narrative Writing
This is a type of writing in which the writer describes an experience, event, or sequence of events in the form of a story. In a narrative writing piece the author is telling a story that has a message for the reader. The writing uses details to convey this message.

Descriptive Writing
Descriptive Writing is writing that uses details that help the reader clearly imagine a certain person, place, thing, or idea. The writer creates an impression of something using sound, feel, sight, taste, and/or smell. It vividly describes a person, place, or thing in such a way that the reader can visualize the topic and feel like they are part of the experience.

Speculative Writing
This writing is also called Picture Prompt Writing. The writer uses a picture as a "springboard" for ideas. This type of writing contains narrative elements such as plot, setting, character, change, and movement through time. It draws on prior knowledge to establish a context for writing and uses details from the prompt to create a story.

Expository Writing
This writing is meant to explain an idea or convey information. In order for this writing to be effective, the writer must conduct research from a variety of sources.

Persuasive Writing
This is usually a favorite for most students. It involves writing in which the author tries to convince the reader to see his/her perspective and makes a case for the validity of an idea or an opinion. This category also includes advertisment writing which tries to convince others to buy something or believe in something.